Introduction to Protein Synthesis

Explore the structure of proteins and learn about the synthesis process inside the cells.

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About This Simulation

This short, targeted simulation is adapted from the full-length “Protein Synthesis” simulation.

Discover how proteins are synthesized! In this simulation, you will learn about transcription of DNA to RNA, the translation of RNA to amino acids, and the formation of proteins from amino acids. You will also learn about the primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures of protein in a 3D animation. Do you know how a DNA sequence can be processed to synthesis a protein?

Study the transcription and translation processes

Begin by learning about the transcription process of DNA to RNA. Discover the translation process where an RNA sequence is read by a ribosome inside a cell and the corresponding to amino acids are made. With these two processes any protein can be made. How do the amino acids form different proteins?

Synthesis of proteins from amino acids

Find out how amino acids are assembled to make proteins. A 3D animation describes how triplets of codons in the RNA sequence are translated into amino acids. Observe how these amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds to create a polypeptide chain: this is the primary structure of a protein. Then watch as the primary structure is folded into secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures. Discover the two main types of secondary structure, and see an example of how the tertiary structure of a protein can be modified post-translation.

Review your knowledge

Put your knowledge of protein synthesis to the test in quizzes throughout the simulation. Do you know the difference between DNA and RNA? How is a protein synthesised in cells?

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